Part Two - Red-Osier Dogwood
|Basket - Flickr, Marche Gluharche|
The Red-Osier was prized amongst many native American Indian tribes for its use in an array of different purposes. The inner bark was processed and dried for mixing with tobacco in scared pipe ceremonies. It is said to have a mild, pleasing smoke that is not addictive like tobacco or causes any mood changes. The Potawatomi people who live in the upper Mississippi river region, used the stems to make dream catchers and once used the feathered ends of its twigs as toothbrushes. Just like the Tatarian dogwood, bows and arrows were popularly fashioned from its long, straight stems.
Apart from weaving, weaponry and dental hygiene, red-osiers were also used for their medicinal benefits. Infusions were made from the bark and used as an anti-diarrhea tonic by the Chippewa and Potawatomi tribes. Shuswap's Indians also created antidotes for weak kidneys and pediatric tonics for children who wet the bed. The Chippewa people used red-osier dogwood bark to make an infusion to ease blistering caused by poison ivy, one I need to look into.
|Natural stand growing along a creek- Flickr, Meg Williams|
|'Arctic Fire' - Proven Winners|
Below is a list of varieties that have found there way into the garden center and succeed well.. As you'll see, there just as diverse as the last group, offering many different choices for the landscape.
'Arctic Fire', (Farrow) is a compact dwarf, non suckering form that makes it ideal for smaller gardens. Unlike most red-osiers that can grow to 8 ft, this one will stay around 3-4 ft. The dark ruby red stems glow all winter, providing a welcome treat after other plants have faded out. In spring, fresh green growth covers the stems and allows emerging perennials to use its form as a backdrop.
|'Cardinal' - Flickr, Glossaria|
'Isanti' is a good, reliable, compact grower to 5 ft with a neat and full habit. Its growth fully covers the stems all the way to the ground so doesn't need landscaping in front to hide of its naked ankles like other shrubs. This makes a good choice for screening or hedging. Its main use is in reclamation work, where its fibrous roots and spreading habit is good for retaining soil on highway embankments in the north. Not a glamorous job description but nevertheless a beauty when seen in mass, naturalized on the side of the highways or our own backyards.
|'Kelseyi' - Thetreefarm.com|
'Silver and Gold' is a variegated sport from the yellow twigged 'Flaviramea'. Originating from the famous gardens of Delaware's Mt. Cuba, this variety showed better adaptability to heat and humidity of the mid-Atlantic region. The bold creamy white leaf margins stand out in summer, but is replace in the fall by striking lime-green to yellowed stems. The variegation is similar to C.alba 'Elegantissima' or 'Ivory Halo' as discussed in the previous post, making a good choice for those looking to combine red and yellow stemmed dogwoods.
Cultivation of Red-osiers is no different to that discussed before with Tatarian dogwoods. Both types need to be reduced periodically to regenerate young growth that contain the best color. Spread can be controlled by cutting back suckers or root pruning with a spade to prevent the spreading, stoloniferous shoots. Though tough as old nails in the landscape, some disease issues can be problematic here in the south. For me, a common problem is bacterial leaf spot and stem blight. Making sure they have good air movement around the plant in summer and preventing irrigation systems from getting the foliage frequently wet will largely reduce the disease risks. Thinning out the old and congested growth will improve air circulation as well as regenerating the plant again. As always, prevention of fungal or disease attacks is better than treating once you contract it. Spraying after the fact will only help prevent the spread onto new growth and not necessary turn around infected areas.
In the last part of this three part series we'll delve into one of the most striking types in the winter, the bloodtwig dogwoods. So until then, I hope that you've been bitten by the allure of dogwoods to the point of planting one for yourself.
For more on Red-osiers click here: plants.usda.gov/plantguide
Part One - Tatarian dogwoods
Part Three - Bloodtwig dogwoods